This project was developed by Jennifer Bain at Dalhousie University, with the majority of the work adding, tagging, and describing sources undertaken by Dalhousie undergraduate and graduate students: Laura Jones (2018), Andrea Klassen (2018), Martha Culshaw (2019-2020), and Lucia Denk (2019-2022, also working post-graduation).
Hildegard’s seventy-seven plainchants and her Ordo virtutum, as well as the manuscripts
transmitting her music, have been tagged and paginated wherever they appear in any of the
bibliography’s resources. A search for a particular music composition (e.g., one of Hildegard’s
sequences, “O virga ac diadema”), in the search bar in the upper-right side of the main page will
find matches in titles as well as tags. Clicking on any source in the results list (or through
browsing the bibliography) will provide the following:
Passing reference – A chant is briefly mentioned in a sentence or two without further discussion
and may also be included in a table or footnote. A passing reference to the same chant may occur
more than once in the same source, and pagination is provided for each occurence in the “Notes”
It is important to note that multiple tags can exist for the same musical composition in a source, particularly if the chant has been discussed, translated and/or transcribed. These multiple instances are clearly delineated in the “Tags” section (for example: O virga ac diadema – transcription; O virga ac diadema – substantial; etc.).
If a single chant qualifies for multiple mention/discussion tags (that is, it receives both passing
reference and is mentioned in a paragraph and/or receives substantial discussion), only one tag is
used based on to what extent the chant is discussed. For instance, if “O virga ac diadema” is
mentioned in passing on one page, discussed later in a paragraph, and then later in the source
substantially addressed, then only one tag will be indicated in the “Tags” section: O virga ac
diadema – substantial. However, all instances where it was mentioned will be paginated as well
in the “Notes” section.
Lists or tables of chants in a given source are not tagged. They are only tagged if mentioned or
discussed in the body of a text. It is important to note as well that the Ordo virtutum is tagged
both as an entire composition as well as by its separate chants (not including the Devil’s spoken
responses). For search purposes, this means that one can discover more information on a specific
chant from the Ordo virtutum (e.g., “In mente altissimi,” Chastity’s address to the Devil), by
searching either by the incipit of that chant or “Ordo virtutum” in the search bar, and then by
looking at the “Notes” for pagination of each Ordo virtutum chant discussed in the source.
In some cases, Hildegard’s music is discussed in sources without specific chants identified. For
these situations, broader tags such as “music and theology” or “music and philosophy” are used
according to the topic of the scholarly source. Tags are also provided for manuscripts containing
Hildegard’s music, if a manuscript is discussed at length (such as “Dendermonde codex” and
The Hildegard Music Research Guide has been carefully designed for the purpose of facilitating easy and efficient citation and research into all aspects of Hildegard’s music. If you have any questions, corrections, or suggestions of missing sources while using this Zotero bibliography, please email the Hildegard Zotero team.